Literature on AIS, Ballast, Fouling, and Treatment - by SUBJECT
General AIS Research
Ballast Water as an AIS Vector
Policy Papers, Regulations, and Management Plans
Treatment Technology and BWM Research and Reports
General AIS Research
Ashe, M., M. Sowby, and P. Ode. December 2002. A Survey of Non-Indigenous Aquatic Species in the Coastal and Estuarine Water of California. Prepared for the Department of Fish and Game.
Carlton, J.T. 1989. Man's role in changing the face of the ocean: biological invasions and implications for conservation of near-shore environments. Conservation Biology, 3: 265-273.
Carlton, J.T. 1996. Pattern, process, and prediction in marine invasion ecology. Biological Conservation, 78(2): 97-106.
Carlton, J.T. 1999. The scale and ecological consequences of biological invasions in the world's oceans. In Invasive Species and Biodiversity Management. O. Sandulund, P. Schei, and A. Viken, eds. Kulwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht, Netherlands. 195-212 pp.
Carlton, J. T. 2001. Introduced species in U.S. coastal waters: environmental impacts and management priorities. Pew Oceans Commission, Arlington, Virginia, USA. http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/env_oceans_species.pdf
Carlton, J.T. 2003. Community assembly and historical biogeography in the North Atlantic Ocean: the potential role of human-mediated dispersal vectors. Hydobiologia, 503(1-3): 1-8.
Carlton, J.T. and A.N. Cohen. 2003. Episodic global dispersal in shallow water marine organisms: the case history of the European shore crabs Carcinus maenas and C. aestuarii. Journal of Biogeography, 30(12): 1809-1820.
Carlton, J.T. and J. Hodder. 1995. Biogeography and dispersal of coastal marine organisms: Experimental studies on a replica of a 16tth-century sailing vessel. Marine Biology, 4: 721-730.
Carlton, J.T. and J.B. Geller. 1993. Ecological roulette: the global transport and invasion of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science, 261: 78-82.
Cohen, A.N. 1998. Ships' Ballast Water and the Introduction of Exotic Organisms into the San Francisco Estuary. Current status of the problem and options for management. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond, CA. 81 pp.
Cohen, A.N. and A. Weinstein. 1998. The potential distribution and abundance of zebra mussels in California. San Francisco Estuary Institute.
Cohen, A.N. and J.T. Carlton, 1995. Biological Study. Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Species in a United States Estuary: A Case Study of the Biological Invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. Washington, D.C., National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Sea Grant College Program, Connecticut Sea Grant. NTIS Report Number PB96-166525.
Cohen, A.N. and J.T. Carlton. 1998. Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science, 279: 555-558.
Coles, S.L., R.C. DeFelice, L.G. Eldredge, J.T. Carlton. 1999. Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Marine Biology. 135: 147-158.
deRivera, C., et al. (2005) Broad-Scale Non-indigenous Species Monitoring along the West Coast in National Marine Sanctuaries and National Estuarine Research Reserves. http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/library/national/invesives_report.pdf
Eldredge, L.G. and J.T. Carlton. 2002. Hawaii marine bioinvasions: A preliminary assessment. Pacific Science. 56:211-212.
Feyrer, F., H.B. Matern, and P.B. Moyle. 2003. Dietary shifts in a stressed fish assemblage: Consequences of a bivalve invasion in the San Francisco estuary. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 67 (277-288).
Floerl, O. and G.J. Inglis. 2005. Starting the invasion pathway: the interaction between source populations and human transport vectors. Biological Invasions, 7(4): 589-606.
Floerl, O., Pool, T.K. and G.J. Inglis. 2004. Positive interactions between nonindigenous species facilitate transport by human vectors. Ecological Applications, 14(6): 1724-1736.
Grosholz, E.D. and G.M. Ruiz. 1995. Spread and potential impact of the recently introduced European green crab, Carcinus maenas, in central California. Marine Biology.
Herbold, B. and P.B. Moyle. 1989. The ecology of the Sacramento-San Juaquin Delta: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report No. 85(7.22), 106 pp. Slidell, Louisiana.
Jassby, A.D., J.E. Cloern, and B.E. Cole. 2002. Annual primary production: patterns and mechanisms of change in a nutrient-rich tidal ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography. 47(698-712).
Johnson, L.E. and J.T. Carlton. 1996. Post-establishment spread in large-scale invasions: Dispersal mechanisms of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Ecology, 77: 1686-1690.
Martel, A.L., D.A. Pathy, J.B. Madill, C.B. Renaud, S.L. Dean, and S.J. Kerr. 2001. Decline and regional extirpation of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in a small river system invaded by Dreissena polymorpha: The Rideau River, 1993-2000. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 79 (2181-2191).
McDonald, P.S., G.C. Jensen, and D.A. Armstrong. 2001. The competitive and predatory impacts of the nonindigenous crab Carcinus maenas (L.) on early benthic phase Dungeness crab Cancer magister Dana. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 258 (39-54).
Jennifer L Molnar, Rebecca L Gamboa, Carmen Revenga, Mark D Spalding. 2008. Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6, doi:10.1890/070064
Nehring, S. 2006. Four arguments why so many alien species settle into estuaries, with special reference to the German river Elbe. Helgoland Marine Research 60:127-134.
Nichols, F.H., J.K. Thompson, and L.E. Schemel. 1990. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. II. Displacement of a former community. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 66: 95-101.
Pimentel, D., R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 2005. Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics. 52 (273-288).
Rudnick, D., T. Veldhuizen, R. Tullis, C. Culver, K. Hieb, and B. Tsukimura. 2005. A life history model for the San Francisco Estuary population of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Decapoda: Grapsoidea). Biological Invasions, 7 (333-350).
Rudnick, D.A., K.M. Halat, and V.H. Resh. 2000. Distribution, Ecology and Potential Impacts of the Chinese MItten Crab (Ericheir sinensis) in San Francisco Bay. University of California Water Resources Center. Riverside, CA. Contribution No. 206. 74 pp.
Ruiz, G.M, Carlton, J.T., Grosholz, E.D. and A.H. Hines. 1997. Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: mechanisms, extent, and consequences. American Zoologist, 37(6): 621-632.
Ruiz, G.M., Fofonoff, P., Hines, A.H. and E.D. Grosholz. 1999. Non-indigenous species as stressors in estuarine and marine communities: Assessing invasion impacts and interactions. Limnology and Oceanography, 44(3): 950-972.
Ruiz, G.M., Fofonoff, P.W., Carlton, J.T., Wonham, M.J. and A.H. HInes. 2000. Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31: 481-531.
Smith, L.D., Wonham, M.J., McCann, L.D., Ruiz, G.M., Hines, A.H. and J.T. Carlton. 1999. Invasion pressure to a ballast-flooded estuary and an assessment of inoculant survival. Biological Invasions, 1(1): 67-87.
Sytsma, M.D., Cordell, J.R., Chapman, J.W., and R.C. Draheim. 2004. Lower Columbia River Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Survey 2001-2004 Final Technical Report. Prepared for the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Appendices.
U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. 2004. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century. Final Report. Washington, DC. 520 pp.
USGS, Center for Aquatic Studies. Progression of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) distribution in North America, Non-indigenous Plants and Animals Program. USGS Florida Integrated Science Center. Accessed 22 March 2005. Website: http://cars.er.usgs.gov/Nonindigenous_Species/ZM_Progression/zm_progression.html
Verling, E., Ruiz, G.M., Smith, L.D., Galil, B., Miller, A.W. and K.R. Murphy. 2005. Supply-side invasion ecology: characterizing propagule pressure in coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272: 1249-1257.
Wasson, K., K. Fenn, and J.S. Pearse. 2005. Habitat differences in marine invasions of central California. Biological Invasions 7:935-948.
Wonham, M.J. and J.T. Carlton. 2005. Trends in marine biological invasions at local and regional scales: the Northeast Pacific Ocean as a model system. Biological Invasions, 7(3): 369-392.
Wonham, M.J., W.C. Walton, G.M. Ruiz, A.M. Frese, and B.S. Galil. 2001. Going to the source: role of the invasion pathway in determining potential invaders. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 215 (1-12).
Ballast Water as an AIS Vector
Bailey, S.A., K. Nandakumar, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2006. Does saltwater flushing reduce viability of diapausing eggs in ship ballast sediments? Diversity and Distributions 12:328-335.
Bailey, S.A., Duggan, I.C., Jenkins, P.T. and H.J. MacIsaac. 2005. Invertebrate resting stages in residual ballast sediment of transoceanic ships. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62(5): 1090-1103.
Bailey, S.A., K. Nandakumar, I.C. Duggan, C.D.A. van Overdijk, T.H. Johengen, D.F. Reid, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2005. In situ hatching of invertebrate diapausing eggs from ships' ballast sediment. Diversity and Distributions 11:453-460.
Bills, J., W.J. Kimmerer, G. Smith, G.M. Ruiz, and K-H Choi. 2003. Is mid-ocean exchange effective in preventing the invasions of estuaries by zooplankton from ships' ballast tanks? In: 17th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation, 9-14, 2
Choi, K.H., Kimmerer, W., Smith, G., Ruiz, G.M. and K. Lion. 2005. Post-exchange zooplankton in ballast water of ships entering the San Francisco Estuary. Journal of Plankton Research, 27(7): 707-714.
David, M. and M. Perkovic. 2004. Ballast water sampling as a critical component of biological invasions risk management. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49:313-318.
Doblin, M.A. and F.C. Dobbs. 2006. Setting a size-exclusion limit to remove toxic dinoflagellate cysts from ships' ballast water. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:259-263.
Drake, J.M., D.M. Lodge, and M. Lewis. 2005a. Theory and preliminary analysis of species invasions from ballast water: Controlling discharge volume and location. American Midland Naturalist 154:459-470.
Drake, L.A., P.T. Jenkins, and F.C. Dobbs. 2005c. Domestic and international arrivals of NOBOB (no ballast on board) vessels to lower Chesapeake Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:560-565.
Drake, L.A., Ruiz, G.M., Galil, B.S., Mullady, T.L., Friedman, D.O. and F.C. Dobbs. 2002. Microbial ecology of ballast water during a transoceanic voyage and the effects of open-ocean exchange. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 233: 13-20.
Duggan, I.C., C.D.A. van Overdijk, S.A. Bailey, P.T. Jenkins, H. Limen, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2005. Invertebrates associated with residual ballast water and sediments of cargo-carrying ships entering the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62:4263-2474.
Floerl, O., G.J. Inglis, H.M. Marsh. 2005. Selectivity in vector management: an investigation of the effectiveness of measures used to prevent transport of non-indigenous species. Biological Invasions. 7: 459-475.
Fofonoff, P.W., G.M. Ruiz, B. Steves, and J. Carlton. 2003. In ships or on ships? Mechanisms of transfer and invasion for nonnative species to the coasts of North America. Pp. 152-181. In Invasive species, vectors and management strategies. G.M. Ruiz and J.T. Carlton eds. Island Press, Washington D.C.
Hallegraeff, G.M. 1998. Transport of toxic dinoflagellates via ships' ballast water: Bioeconomic risk assessment and efficacy of possible ballast water management strategies. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 168: 297-309.
Kozai, K., H. Ishida, K. Okamoto, and Y. Fukuyo. 2006. Feasibility study of ocean color remote sensing for detecting ballast water. Advances in Space Research 37:787-792.
Lavoie, D.M., Smith, L.D. and G.M. Ruiz. 1999. The potential for intracoastal transfer of non-indigenous species in the ballast water of ships. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 48(5): 551-564.
MacIsaac, H.J., T.C. Robbins, and M.A. Lewis. 2002. Modeling ships' ballast water as invasion threats to the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 59 (1245-1256).
Minton, M.S., Verling, E., Miller, A.W. and G.M. Ruiz. 2005. Reducing propagule supply and coastal invasions via ships: effects of emerging strategies. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(6): 304-308.
Murphy, K., G.M. Ruiz and M. Sytsma. 2003. Standardized sampling protocol for verifying mid-ocean ballast water exchange. Report No. CG-D-11-03, US Coast Guard Research and Development Center, Groton.
Murphy, K., G.M. Ruiz and M. Sytsma. 2005. Standardized sampling protocol verifying mid-ocean ballast water exchange: Revision III February 8 2005, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater MD.
Murphy, K., J. Boehme, P. Coble , J. Cullen, P. Field, W. Moore, E. Perry, R. Sherrell, and G. Ruiz. 2004. Verification of mid-ocean ballast water exchange using naturally occurring coastal tracers. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48:711-730.
Murphy, K.R.,G.M. Ruiz, W.T.M. Dunsmuir, and T.D. Waite. 2006. Optimized parameters for fluorescence-based verification of ballast water exchange by ships. Environmental Science and Technology 40:2357-2362.
Niimi, A.J. 2004. Role of container vessels in the introduction of exotic species. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49:778-782.
Parsons, M.G. 1998. Flow-through ballast water exchange. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Transactions. 106 (485-493).
Ruiz, G.M., G. Smith, C. Coss, S. Abbott, G. Inami, S. Jiang, and D. Leisy. December 2004. Ballast-entrained Biota in container ships arriving at the Port of Oakland. In Biological Study of Container Vessels at the Port of Oakland. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Chapter 2: 10-53.
Ruiz, G.M., Rawlings, T.K., Dobbs, F.C., Drake, L.A., Mullady, T., Hug, A. and R.R. Colwell. 2000. Global spread of microorganisms by ships - Ballast water discharged from vessels harbours a cocktail of potential pathogens. Nature, 408 (6808): 49-50.
Taylor and Bruce. 2000. Mid-ocean ballast water exchange: shipboard trials of methods for verifying efficiency. Cawthron Report No. 524, Nelson, 59 pp.
Zhang, F. and M. Dickman. 1999. Mid-Ocean exchange of container vessel ballast water. 1: Seasonal factors affecting the transport of harmful diatoms and dinoflagellates. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 176 (243-251).
Vessel Fouling Research
For more information, please visit our webpage on Vessel Fouling.
Coutts, A.D.M. 2005 (a). Managing marine biosecurity in New Zealand: From a research provider's perspective. In Hull fouling as a mechanism for marine invasive species introductions. Proceedings of a workshop on current issues and potential management strategies. February 12-13, 2004. pp. 36-46. Godwin, L.S. (ed).
Coutts, A.D.M. 2005 (b). Slow-moving barge introduces biosecurity risk to the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. Pp. 29-35. In Hull fouling as a mechanism for marine invasive species introductions. Proceedings of a workshop on current issues and potential management strategies. L.S. Godwin (ed.) Honolulu, HI. February 12-13, 2003.
Coutts, A.D.M. and M.D. Taylor. 2004. A preliminary investigation of biosecurity risks associated with biofouling on merchant vessels in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 38: 215-229.
Coutts, D.M., K.M. Moore, and C. Hewitt. 2003. Ships' sea-chests: An overlooked transfer mechanism for non-indigenous marine species? Marine Pollution Bulletin. 46 (1504-1515).
Davidson, I., Sytsma, M., Ruiz, G. 2005. ANS Investigations in the Columbia River, Task IV Final Report: Preliminary investigations of biofouling of ships' hulls. Draft report to the US Coast Guard Research and Development Center. 63 pgs.
Drake, L.A., A.E. Meyer, R.L. Forsberg, R.E. Baier, M.A. Doblin, S. Heinemann, W.P. Johnson, M. Koch, P.A. Rublee, and F.C. Dobbs. 2005b. Potential invasion of microorganisms and pathogens via 'interior hull fouling': biofilms inside ballast water tanks. Biological Invasions 7:969-982.
Floerl, O. 2005. Factors that influence hull fouling on ocean-going vessels. Pp. 6-13. In Hull fouling as a mechanism for marine invasive species introductions: Proceedings of a workshop on current issues and potential management strategies. L.S. Godwin (ed.) Honolulu, HI. February 12-13, 2003.
Floerl, O. and G.J. Inglis. 2005. Potential for the introduction and spread of marine pests by private yachts. Pp. 22-28. In Hull fouling as a mechanism for marine invasive species introductions: Proceedings of a workshop on current issues and potential management strategies. L.S. Godwin (ed.) Honolulu, HI. February 12-13, 2003.
Floerl, O., N. Norton, G. Inglis, B. Hayden, C. Middleton, M. Smith, N. Alcock, I. Fitridge. 2004. An investigation of hull cleaning and associated waste treatment options for preventing the spread of non-indigenous marine species. Final research report for Ministry of Fisheries Project ZBS2002-04. 40 pgs.
Godwin, S.L. 2003. Hull fouling of maritime vessels as a pathway for marine species invasions to the Hawaiin Islands. Biofouling, 19: 123-121.
Godwin, S.L., L.G. Eldredge, and K. Gaut. 2004. The assessment of hull fouling as a mechanism for the introduction and dispersal of marine alien species in the main Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Technical Report No. 28. Honolulu, HI. 144 pp.
Godwin, S.L., et al. 2004. Marine Invasive Species Transported by Vessel Hull Fouling: Potential Management Approaches.
Godwin, L.S. 2005. Development of an initial framework for the management of hull fouling as a marine invasive species transport mechanism. In: Hull fouling as a mechanism for marine invasive species introductions. Proceedings of a workshop on current issues and potential management strategies. February 12-13, 2004. pp. 47-54. Godwin, L.S. (ed).
Gollasch, S. 2002. The importance of ship hull fouling as a vector of species introductions into the North Sea. Biofouling. 18:105-121.
Minchin, D., and S. Gollasch. 2003. Fouling and ships' hulls: How changing circumstances and spawning events may result in the spread of exotic species. Biofouling. 19 (111-122).
Railkin, A.I. 2004. Marine biofouling: Colonization processes and defenses. CRC Press. Washington D.C., 303 pgs.
Ruiz, G.M., C. Brown, G. Smith, B. Morrison, D. Ockrassa, and K. Nekinaken. December 2004. Analysis of biofouling organisms associated with the hulls of containerships arriving to the Port of Oakland: A pilot study. In Biological Study of Container Vessels at the Port of Oakland, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Chapter 4: 141-156.
Ruiz, G.M., C. Brown, G. Smith, B. Morrison, D. Ockrassa, and K. Nekinaken. March 2005a. Analysis of Biofouling Organisms Associated with the Hulls of Containerships Arriving to the Port of Oakland: A Pilot Study. In Biological Study of Container Vessel at the Port of Oakland. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Chapter 4 (141-156).
Ruiz, G.M., G.E. Smith, and M. Sytsma. Workshop Report on Testing of Ballast Water Treatment Systems: General Guidelines and Step-wise Strategy Toward Shipboard Testing. Aquatic Bioinvasions Research and Policy Institute. June 2006.
Skerman, T.M. 1960. Ship-fouling in New Zealand waters: A survey of marine fouling organisms from vessels of the coastal and overseas trade. New Zealand Journal of Science. 3: 620-648.
Takata, L., Falkner, M., and S. Gilmore. 2006. California State Lands Commission Report on Commercial Vessel Fouling in California: Analysis, Evaluation, and Recommendations to Reduce Nonindigenous Species Release from the Non-Ballast Water Vector . California State Lands Commission. Marine Facilities Division. 83 pp.
Policy Papers, Regulations, and Management Plans
Australia Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry. 2006. The National System for the Prevention and management of Marine Pest Incursions.
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service. "Australian Ballast Water Management Requirement". Marine Awareness Kit. Accessed 24 March, 2005. Website: http://www.affa.gov.au/corporate_docs/publications/html/quarantine/ballast_water/Australian_BW_Requirements.pdf.
Barth, J., Collins, C. and B. Hickey. 2002. West Coast Oceanography: Implications for Ballast Water Exchange. Draft Report. Edited by K. McDowell and M. Sytsma. 36 pp.
eCarlton, J.T., 2001. Introduced species in U.S. coastal waters: environmental impacts and management priorities. Pew Oceans Commission, Arlington, Virginia, iii + 28 + (1) pp.
Cohen, A.N., L.H. Harris, B.L. Bingham, J.T. Carlton, J.W. Chapman, C.C. Lambert, G. Lambert, J.C. Ljubenkov, S.N. Murray, L.C. Rao, K. Reardon and E. Schwindt. 2005. Rapid Assessment Survey for exotic organisms in southern California bays and harbors, and abundance in port and non-port areas. Biological Invasions, 7 (6): 995-1002(8)
Cohen, A.N. 2004. An Exotic Species Detection Program for Puget Sound. Prepared for the Puget Sound Action Team, Olympia, WA. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA http://sfei.org/bioinvasions/Reports/2004-PugetSoundESDP380.pdf
Endresen, O., H.L. Behrens, S. Brynestad, A.B. Andersen, and R. Skjong. 2004. Challenges in global ballast water management. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48:615-623.
Falkner, M., Takata, L. and S. Gilmore. 2006. California State Lands Commission Report on Performance Standards for Ballast Water Discharges in California Waters. California State Lands Commission. Marine Facilities Division. 60 pp.
Falkner, M., Takata, L., and S. Gilmore. 2005. Report on the California Marine Invasive Species Program. California State Lands Commission, Marine Facilities Division. 71 pp.
Falkner, M.B. 2003. Report on the California Ballast Water Management Program. California State Lands Commission, Marine Facilities Division. 82 pp.
Hanson, E. and M. Sytsma. 2001. Oregon Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan. 91 pp.
International Maritime Organization (IMO). 2005. International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. London.
Lodge, DM, Williams, MacIsaac, Hayes, Leung, Reichard,Mack, Moyle, Smith, Andow, Carlton, McMichael. (2006) Biological Invasions: Recommendations for U.S. Policy and Management. Ecological Applications: 16(6): 2035-2054. http://www.esa.org/pao/policyStatements/pdfDocuments/bioIvasions2006.pdf
Lovell, S.J. and S.F. Stone. 2005. The economic impacts of aquatic invasive species: A review of the literature. Working Paper No. 05-02. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington D.C. 64 pp.
MacPhee, Briony. 2007. Hitchhikers' Guide to the Ballast Water Management Convention: An analysis of Legal Mechanisms to Address the Issue of Alien Invasive Species, Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, 10: 1, 29-54.
Marine Environment Protection Committee. Guidelines for approval of ballast water management systems (G8). MEPC 53/24/Add.1. Annex 3 - Resolution.125(53) adopted on July 22, 2005.
McEnnulty, F.R., Bax, N.J., Schaffelke, B., Campbell, M.L. 2001. A review of rapid response options for the control of ABWMAC listed introduced marine pest species and related taxa in Australian waters. CRIMP Technical Report No. 23. Hobart Australia. 101 pgs.
National Research Council. 1996. Stemming the Tide: Controlling the Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ship's Ballast Water. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press.
New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries. A guide to New Zealand ballast water controls. Accessed 24 March 2005. Website: http://www.fish.govt.nz/sustainability/biosecurity/ballastwater.html
Ruiz, G.M. and J.T. Carlton. 2003. Invasion vectors: A conceptual framework for management. In Invasive species, vectors and management strategies. Pp. 459-498. G.M. Ruiz and J.T. Carlton eds. Island Press, Washington D.C.
Simkanin, C. and M. Sytsma. 2006. Report on the Oregon ballast water management program in 2006. Oregon Ballast Water Task Force. 51 pp.
Takata, L., Falkner, M., and S. Gilmore. 2006. California State Lands Commission Report on Commercial Vessel Fouling in California: Analysis, Evaluation, and Recommendations to Reduce Nonindigenous Species Release from the Non-Ballast Water Vector. California State Lands Commission. Marine Facilities Division. 83 pp.
Transport Canada. 2006. Canada shipping act - ballast water control and management regulations. http://www.tc.gc.ca/acts-regulations/GENERAL/C/csa/regulations/400/csa448/csa448.html
Vinograd, J. 2003. An Analysis of the Oregon Coastal Exchange Requirement. Produced for the Oregon Ballast Water Task Force.
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2003. Washington state ballast water program. http://www.wdfw.wa.gov/fish/nuisance/ballast.htm.
Treatment Technology and BWM Research and Reports
Battelle. 2004. Draft Generic Protocol for the Verification of Ballast Water Treatment Technologies. 62 pp.
Brock, R., J.H. Bailey-Brock, J. Goody. 1999. A case study of efficacy of freshwater immersion in controlling introduction of alien marine fouling communities: The USS Missouri. Pacific Science. 53: 223-231.
Glosten Associates for the Puget Sounds Action Team. 2006. Ballast Treatment Systems.
Hall, SD, and Wilson, KF. (2006) Ballast Water Flushing of Multiple Tanks on Board Sea-Going Bulk Carriers. J. of Marine Env. Eng., 00: 1-10.
International Marine Coatings. 2006. TBT free antifoulings and foul release systems.
Larsson, I. and M. Sytsma. 2006. Ballast Water Management on the Columbia River. 43 pp.
Oviatt, C. et al. 2005. Field Test of the Ecochlor Ballast Water Treatment System Aboard the M/V Atlantic Compass and the M/V Moku Pahu. University of Rhode Island. Draft Proposal for the California State Lands Commission.
Oviatt, C., P. Hargraves, R. Kelly, M. Kirs, L. Maranda, B. Moran, D. Outram, D. Smith, B. Sullivan, and K. Whitman. Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide to Ballast Water Flora and Fauna in Bench Scale Assays. Graduate School of Oceanography. University of Rhode Island. November 2002.
Puget Sounds Action Team. 2007. Ballast Water Management in Washington State: Recommendations for Improvements
Tamburri M., G. M. Ruiz, and P. D. McNulty. 2005. Shipboard Prototype Evaluations of Venturi Oxygen Stripping During Continuous Routine Vessel Operations. Phase IV: Prototype Ballast Water Treatment Technology Field Tests in Conjunction with STEP. University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Draft Proposal for the California State Lands Commission.
United States Coast Guard. Navigation and Inspection Circular No. 01-04. Shipboard Technology Evaluation Program (STEP): Experimental Ballast Water Treatment Systems. January 2004.
Welschmeyer, N., S. Bollens, S. Avent, E. Landrau, T. Voss, and R. Fairey. July 2004. Onboard Testing of Ballast Treatment Efficacy: Summary Report. Prepared for the California State Water Resources Control Board and California State Lands Commission.
Wonham, M.J., M.A. Lewis, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2005a. Minimizing invasion risk by reducing propagule pressure: a model for ballast-water exchange. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3:473-478
Wonham, M.J., S.A. Bailey, H.J. MacIsaac, and M.A. Lewis. 2005b. Modeling the invasion risk of diapausing organisms transported in ballast sediments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62:2386-2398 http://www.daffa.gov.au/fisheries/invasive/national-system.